The mumps virus is acquired by respiratory droplets and replicates in the nasopharynx and regional lymph nodes. After 12 to 25 days, a viremia occurs, which lasts from 3 to 5 days. During the viremia, the virus spreads to multiple tissues, including the meninges and glands such as the salivary, pancreas, testes, and ovaries. Inflammation in infected tissues leads to characteristic symptoms of parotitis and aseptic meningitis.1
- What is the pathogenesis of the mumps virus?
- How is the mumps virus manifested?
The most common manifestation of mumps is parotitis, which occurs in approximately 31% to 65% of infected persons. This tends to occur within the first 2 days and may first be noted as earache and tenderness of the jaw.1 Fever can last 1 to 6 days.2 Symptoms of the disease tend to decrease after 1 week and usually resolve after 10 days.1
- What are the potential complications of mumps?
Orchitis is the most common complication of mumps. Cases of orchitis in postpubertal males ranged from 12% to 66% in the prevaccine era. In 60% to 83% of males with mumps orchitis, only one testis was affected. In the postvaccine era, rates of orchitis in postpubertal males range from 3% to 10%. Orchitis is associated with testicular swelling, tenderness, nausea, vomiting, and fever; sterility is rare.1 In the prevaccine era, permanent unilateral deafness caused by mumps virus occured in approximately 1 in 20,000 cases.1,2 Aseptic meningitis occurred symptomatically in approximately 10% of patients in the prevaccine era and resolved without sequelae in 3 to 10 days.1 However, in the postvaccine era, cases of meningitis, encephalitis, and deafness are rarely
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CDC=Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
|1.||Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Mumps. In: Hamborsky J, Kroger A, Wolfe S, eds. Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases.13th ed. Washington, DC: Public Health Foundation; 2015:247–260. http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/pinkbook/index.html. Accessed November 25, 2016.|
|2.||Rubin SA, Plotkin SA. Mumps vaccine. In: Plotkin SA, Orenstein WA, Offit PA, eds. Vaccines. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:419–446.|