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Impacting the vaccination gap

Social determinants of health drive disparities in vaccination uptake within the adult population.1

Impact of SDOH on Adult Influenza Vaccination Uptake

Households with limited income, education, and health care access demonstrate lower rates of vaccine coverage.1

Influenza Vaccination Coverage Among Adults (N=279,590) BRFSS Survey, 20191,a:

Household Income

Household Income of Adults with Vaccination CoverageHousehold Income of Adults with Vaccination Coverage

Educational Status

Educational Status of Adults with Influenza VaccinationEducational Status of Adults with Influenza Vaccination

Health Care Access Factors

Health Care Access Factors for AdultsHealth Care Access Factors for Adults

aBRFSS is a state-based random digit-dialed telephone survey conducted by the CDC among US adults aged ≥18 years which inquires about health conditions and behaviors.1

BRFSS, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System; CDC, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; SDOH, social determinants of health.

Lower influenza vaccination uptake is also exhibited among specific racial and ethnic groups that have been disproportionately affected by SDOH.2

During the 2022–2023 flu season, 42.5% of Black (non-Hispanic) and approximately 37% of Hispanic adults aged 18 years or older were vaccinated compared to approximately 51% of non-Hispanic White adults.2

Flu Vaccination Coverage by Racial/Ethnic Group, Adults 18 Years and Older, United States 2010-20232

Influenza Vaccination Coverage for Adults by Racial/Ethnic GroupInfluenza Vaccination Coverage for Adults by Racial/Ethnic Group

Data source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS).

See how your state measures up.


  1. Brewer LI, Ommerborn MJ, Nguyen AL, Clark CR. Structural inequities in seasonal influenza vaccination rates. BMC Public Health. 2021;21:1166. doi:10.1186/s12889-021-11179-9
  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Flu vaccination coverage, United States, 2022-23 influenza season. Reviewed October 10, 2023. Accessed March 13, 2024.